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Use of HOMA-IR to diagnose non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a population-based and... Use of HOMA-IR to diagnose non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a population-based and...

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Date added: 05/27/2018
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"Use of HOMA-IR to diagnose non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a population-based and inter-laboratory study"

Aims/hypothesis
Recent European guidelines for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) call for reference values for HOMA-IR. In this study, we aimed to determine: (1) the upper limit of normal HOMA-IR in two population-based cohorts; (2) the HOMA-IR corresponding to NAFLD; (3) the effect of sex and PNPLA3 genotype at rs738409 on HOMA-IR; and (4) inter-laboratory variations in HOMA-IR.

Methods
We identified healthy individuals in two population-based cohorts (FINRISK 2007 [n = 5024] and the Programme for Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes in Finland [FIN-D2D; n = 2849]) to define the upper 95th percentile of HOMA-IR. Non-obese individuals with normal fasting glucose levels, no excessive alcohol use, no known diseases and no use of any drugs were considered healthy. The optimal HOMA-IR cut-off for NAFLD (liver fat ≥5.56%, based on the Dallas Heart Study) was determined in 368 non-diabetic individuals (35% with NAFLD), whose liver fat was measured using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Samples from ten individuals were simultaneously analysed for HOMA-IR in seven European laboratories.

Results
The upper 95th percentiles of HOMA-IR were 1.9 and 2.0 in healthy individuals in the FINRISK (n = 1167) and FIN-D2D (n = 459) cohorts. Sex or PNPLA3 genotype did not influence these values. The optimal HOMA-IR cut-off for NAFLD was 1.9 (sensitivity 87%, specificity 79%). A HOMA-IR of 2.0 corresponded to normal liver fat (<5.56% on 1H-MRS) in linear regression analysis. The 2.0 HOMA-IR measured in Helsinki corresponded to 1.3, 1.6, 1.8, 1.8, 2.0 and 2.1 in six other laboratories. The inter-laboratory CV% of HOMA-IR was 25% due to inter-assay variation in insulin (25%) rather than glucose (5%) measurements.

Conclusions/interpretation
The upper limit of HOMA-IR in population-based cohorts closely corresponds to that of normal liver fat. Standardisation of insulin assays would be the first step towards definition of normal values for HOMA-IR.

PNPLA3 and obesity: a synergistic relationship in NAFLD PNPLA3 and obesity: a synergistic relationship in NAFLD

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Date added: 05/27/2018
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NAFLD, the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, is a multifactorial condition — environmental factors influence an inherited genetic risk. Stender et al. now describe the additive effect of obesity and NAFLD-associated genetic polymorphisms on steatosis, elevated serum alanine aminotransferase levels and cirrhosis, remarkably illustrating the principle of gene–environment interactions.

Refers to Stender, S. et al. Adiposity amplifies the genetic risk of fatty liver disease conferred by multiple loci. Nat. Genet. 49, 842–847 (2017)

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and its relationship with cardiovascular disease and other... Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and its relationship with cardiovascular disease and other...

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"Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and its relationship with cardiovascular disease and other extrahepatic diseases"

Key physiological functions of the liver, including glucose and lipid metabolism, become disturbed in the setting of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and may be associated with a systemic inflammatory ‘milieu’ initiated in part by liver-secreted cytokines and molecules. Consequently, the pathophysiological effects of NAFLD extend beyond the liver with a large body of clinical evidence demonstrating NAFLD to be independently associated with both prevalent and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), chronic kidney disease (CKD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The magnitude of risk of developing these extrahepatic diseases parallels the underlying severity of NAFLD, such that patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) appear to be at greater risk of incident CVD, CKD and T2DM than those with simple steatosis. Other modifiers of risk may include genetic variants (e.g. patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 and trans-membrane 6 superfamily member 2 polymorphisms), visceral adipose tissue accumulation, dietary intake and the gut microbiome. Emerging data also suggest that NAFLD may be a risk factor for colonic neoplasia and reduced bone mineral density, especially among men. Importantly, improvement/resolution of NAFLD is associated with a reduced incidence of T2DM and improved kidney function, adding weight to causality and suggesting liver focused treatments may reduce risk of extrahepatic complications. Awareness of these associations is important for the clinicians such that CVD risk factor management, screening for T2DM and CKD are part of the routine management of patients with NAFLD.

Role of Adipose Tissue Insulin Resistance in the Natural History of T2DM: Results From the San... Role of Adipose Tissue Insulin Resistance in the Natural History of T2DM: Results From the San...

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Date added: 03/10/2018
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"Role of Adipose Tissue Insulin Resistance in the Natural History of T2DM: Results From the San Antonio Metabolism Study"

In the transition from normal glucose tolerance (NGT) to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the role of b-cell dysfunction and peripheral insulin resistance (IR) is well established. However, the impact of dysfunctional adipose tissue has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of resistance to the antilipolytic effect of insulin (adipose tissue IR [Adipo-IR]) in a large group of subjects with NGT, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and T2DM.

Serum lipidomics reveals early differential effects of gastric bypass compared to banding on... Serum lipidomics reveals early differential effects of gastric bypass compared to banding on...

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Date added: 02/03/2018
Date modified: 02/03/2018
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"Serum lipidomics reveals early differential effects of gastric bypass compared to banding on phospholipids and sphingolipids independent of differences in weight loss"

Background/Objectives:
Circulating phospholipids and sphingolipids are implicated in obesity-related comorbidities such as insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. How bariatric surgery affects these important lipid markers is poorly understood. We sought to determine whether Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), which is associated with greater metabolic improvement, differentially affects the phosphosphingolipidome compared with adjustable gastric banding (AGB).

Subjects/Methods:
Fasting sera were available from 59 obese women (body mass index range 37–51 kg m−2; n=37 RYGB and 22 AGB) before surgery, then at 1 (21 RYGB, 12 AGB) and 3 months follow-up (19 RYGB, 12 AGB). HPLC-MS/MS was used to quantify 131 lipids from nine structural classes. DXA measurements and laboratory parameters were also obtained. The associations between lipids and clinical measurements were studied with P-values adjusted for the false discovery rate (FDR).

Results:
Both surgical procedures rapidly induced weight loss and improved clinical profiles, with RYGB producing better improvements in fat mass, and serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and orosomucoid (FDR <10%). Ninety-three (of 131) lipids were altered by surgery—the majority decreasing—with 29 lipids differentially affected by RYGB during the study period. The differential effect of the surgeries remained statistically significant for 20 of these lipids after adjusting for differences in weight loss between surgery types. The RYGB signature consisted of phosphatidylcholine species not exceeding 36 carbons, and ceramides and sphingomyelins containing C22 to C25 fatty acids. RYGB also led to a sustained increase in unsaturated ceramide and sphingomyelin species. The RYGB-specific lipid changes were associated with decreases in body weight, total and LDL-C, orosomucoid and increased HOMA-S (FDR <10%).

Conclusions:
Concomitant with greater metabolic improvement, RYGB induced early and sustained changes in phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins and ceramides that were independent of greater weight loss. These data suggest that RYGB may specifically alter sphingolipid metabolism, which, in part, could explain the better metabolic outcomes of this surgical procedure.

Lipid Zonation and Phospholipid Remodeling in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Lipid Zonation and Phospholipid Remodeling in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

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Date added: 08/22/2017
Date modified: 08/22/2017
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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can progress from simple steatosis (i.e., nonalcoholic fatty liver [NAFL]) to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis, and cancer. Currently, the driver for this progression is not fully understood; in particular, it is not known how NAFLD and its early progression affects the distribution of lipids in the liver, producing lipotoxicity and inflammation. In this study, we used dietary and genetic mouse models of NAFL and NASH and translated the results to humans by correlating the spatial distribution of lipids in liver tissue with disease progression using advanced mass spectrometry imaging technology. We identified several lipids with distinct zonal distributions in control and NAFL samples and observed partial to complete loss of lipid zonation in NASH. In addition, we found increased hepatic expression of genes associated with remodeling the phospholipid membrane, release of arachidonic acid (AA) from the membrane, and production of eicosanoid species that promote inflammation and cell injury. The results of our immunohistochemistry analyses suggest that the zonal location of remodeling enzyme LPCAT2 plays a role in the change in spatial distribution for AA-containing lipids. This results in a cycle of AA-enrichment in pericentral hepatocytes, membrane release of AA, and generation of proinflammatory eicosanoids and may account for increased oxidative damage in pericentral regions in NASH. Conclusion: NAFLD is associated not only with lipid enrichment, but also with zonal changes of specific lipids and their associated metabolic pathways. This may play a role in the heterogeneous development of NAFLD.

Age as a Confounding Factor for the Accurate Non-Invasive Diagnosis of Advanced NAFLD Fibrosis Age as a Confounding Factor for the Accurate Non-Invasive Diagnosis of Advanced NAFLD Fibrosis

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Date added: 08/22/2017
Date modified: 08/22/2017
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OBJECTIVES: Non-invasive fibrosis scores are widely used to identify/exclude advanced fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, these scores were principally developed and validated in patients aged between 35 and 65 years of age. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of age on the performance of non-invasive fibrosis tests in NAFLD.

METHODS: Patients were recruited from European specialist hepatology clinics. The cohort was divided into five age-based groups: ≤35 (n=74), 36–45 (n=96), 46–55 (n=197), 56–64 (n=191), and ≥65 years (n=76), and the performance of the aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine transaminase (ALT) ratio, fibrosis 4 (FIB-4), and NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS) for advanced fibrosis (stage F3–F4) for each group was assessed using liver biopsy as the standard.

RESULTS: Six hundred and thirty-four patients were included. The diagnostic accuracy of the AST/ALT ratio was lower than NFS and FIB-4 in all the age groups. The AST/ALT ratio, NFS, and FIB-4 score performed poorly for a diagnosis of advanced fibrosis in those aged ≤35 years (area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROCs 0.52, 0.52, and 0.60, respectively). For all groups >35 years, AUROCs for advanced fibrosis were similar for the NFS and FIB-4 score (range 0.77–0.84). However, the specificity for advanced fibrosis using the FIB-4 and NFS declined with age, becoming unacceptably low in those aged ≥65 years (35% for FIB-4 and 20% for NFS). New cutoffs were derived (and validated) for those aged ≥65 years, which improved specificity to 70% without adversely affecting sensitivity (FIB-4 2.0, sensitivity 77%; NFS 0.12, sensitivity 80%).

CONCLUSIONS: The NFS and FIB-4 scores have similar accuracy for advanced fibrosis in patients aged >35 years. However, the specificity for advanced fibrosis is unacceptably low in patients aged ≥65 years, resulting in a high false positive rate. New thresholds for use in patients aged ≥65 years are proposed to address this issue.

Obesity/insulin resistance rather than liver fat increases coagulation factor activities and express Obesity/insulin resistance rather than liver fat increases coagulation factor activities and express

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Date added: 03/08/2017
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Increased liver fat may be caused by insulin resistance and adipose tissue inflammation or by the common I148M variant in PNPLA3 at rs738409, which lacks both of these features. We hypothesised that obesity/insulin resistance rather than liver fat increases circulating coagulation factor activities. We measured plasma prothrombin time (PT, Owren method), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), activities of several coagulation factors, VWF:RCo and fibrinogen, and D-dimer concentration in 92 subjects divided into groups based on insulin sensitivity and PNPLA3 genotype.

We conclude that obesity/insulin resistance rather than an increase in liver fat is associated with a procoagulant plasma profile. This reflects adipose tissue inflammation and increased hepatic production of coagulation factors and their susceptibility for activation.

The MBOAT7 variant rs641738 alters hepatic phosphatidylinositols and increases severity of NAFLD The MBOAT7 variant rs641738 alters hepatic phosphatidylinositols and increases severity of NAFLD

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Date added: 03/08/2017
Date modified: 03/08/2017
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We have recently shown in 125 subjects that insulin resistance and the PNPLA3 I148M gene variant, two common risk factors of NAFLD, are characterized with markedly different content and composition of lipids in the human liver. In 2015, a variant in membrane bound O-acyltransferase domain containing 7 (MBOAT7) at rs641738 was discovered to increase the risk of alcohol-related cirrhosis. This variant was also shown to increase the risk of steatosis and histologic liver damage in NAFLD, independent of obesity.

Lipotoxicity, obesity and metabolic diseases Lipotoxicity, obesity and metabolic diseases

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Date added: 03/07/2017
Date modified: 03/07/2017
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Article published in the Newsletter of the Spanish Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (SEBBM)