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Use of HOMA-IR to diagnose non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a population-based and... Use of HOMA-IR to diagnose non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a population-based and...

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Date added: 05/27/2018
Date modified: 05/27/2018
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"Use of HOMA-IR to diagnose non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a population-based and inter-laboratory study"

Aims/hypothesis
Recent European guidelines for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) call for reference values for HOMA-IR. In this study, we aimed to determine: (1) the upper limit of normal HOMA-IR in two population-based cohorts; (2) the HOMA-IR corresponding to NAFLD; (3) the effect of sex and PNPLA3 genotype at rs738409 on HOMA-IR; and (4) inter-laboratory variations in HOMA-IR.

Methods
We identified healthy individuals in two population-based cohorts (FINRISK 2007 [n = 5024] and the Programme for Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes in Finland [FIN-D2D; n = 2849]) to define the upper 95th percentile of HOMA-IR. Non-obese individuals with normal fasting glucose levels, no excessive alcohol use, no known diseases and no use of any drugs were considered healthy. The optimal HOMA-IR cut-off for NAFLD (liver fat ≥5.56%, based on the Dallas Heart Study) was determined in 368 non-diabetic individuals (35% with NAFLD), whose liver fat was measured using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Samples from ten individuals were simultaneously analysed for HOMA-IR in seven European laboratories.

Results
The upper 95th percentiles of HOMA-IR were 1.9 and 2.0 in healthy individuals in the FINRISK (n = 1167) and FIN-D2D (n = 459) cohorts. Sex or PNPLA3 genotype did not influence these values. The optimal HOMA-IR cut-off for NAFLD was 1.9 (sensitivity 87%, specificity 79%). A HOMA-IR of 2.0 corresponded to normal liver fat (<5.56% on 1H-MRS) in linear regression analysis. The 2.0 HOMA-IR measured in Helsinki corresponded to 1.3, 1.6, 1.8, 1.8, 2.0 and 2.1 in six other laboratories. The inter-laboratory CV% of HOMA-IR was 25% due to inter-assay variation in insulin (25%) rather than glucose (5%) measurements.

Conclusions/interpretation
The upper limit of HOMA-IR in population-based cohorts closely corresponds to that of normal liver fat. Standardisation of insulin assays would be the first step towards definition of normal values for HOMA-IR.

The MBOAT7 variant rs641738 alters hepatic phosphatidylinositols and increases severity of NAFLD The MBOAT7 variant rs641738 alters hepatic phosphatidylinositols and increases severity of NAFLD

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Date added: 03/08/2017
Date modified: 03/08/2017
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We have recently shown in 125 subjects that insulin resistance and the PNPLA3 I148M gene variant, two common risk factors of NAFLD, are characterized with markedly different content and composition of lipids in the human liver. In 2015, a variant in membrane bound O-acyltransferase domain containing 7 (MBOAT7) at rs641738 was discovered to increase the risk of alcohol-related cirrhosis. This variant was also shown to increase the risk of steatosis and histologic liver damage in NAFLD, independent of obesity.

The good and the bad collagens of fibrosis – Their role in signaling and organ function The good and the bad collagens of fibrosis – Their role in signaling and organ function

Date added: 08/07/2018
Date modified: 08/07/2018
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Usually the dense extracellular structure in fibrotic tissues is described as extracellular matrix (ECM) or simply as collagen. However, fibrosis is not just fibrosis, which is already exemplified by the variant morphological characteristics of fibrosis due to viral versus cholestatic, autoimmune or toxic liver injury, with reticular, chicken wire and bridging fibrosis. Importantly, the overall composition of the ECM, especially the relative amounts of the many types of collagens, which represent the most abundant ECM molecules and which centrally modulate cellular functions and physiological processes, changes dramatically during fibrosis progression.

We hypothesize that there are good and bad collagens in fibrosis and that a change of location alone may change the function from good to bad. Whereas basement membrane collagen type IV anchors epithelial and other cells in a polarized manner, the interstitial fibroblast collagens type I and III do not provide directional information. In addition, feedback loops from biologically active degradation products of some collagens are examples of the importance of having the right collagen at the right place and at the right time controlling cell function, proliferation, matrix production and fate. Examples are the interstitial collagen type VI and basement membrane collagen type XVIII. Their carboxyterminal propeptides serve as an adipose tissue hormone, endotrophin, and as a regulator of angiogenesis, endostatin, respectively.

We provide an overview of the 28 known collagen types and propose that the molecular composition of the ECM in fibrosis needs careful attention to assess its impact on organ function and its potential to progress or reverse. Consequently, to adequately assess fibrosis and to design optimal antifibrotic therapies, we need to dissect the molecular entity of fibrosis for the molecular composition and spatial distribution of collagens and the associated ECM.

The genetics of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Spotlight on PNPLA3 & TM6SF2 The genetics of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Spotlight on PNPLA3 & TM6SF2

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Date added: 05/22/2016
Date modified: 05/22/2016
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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum that spans simple steatosis, through non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) to fibrosis and ultimately cirrhosis. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is characterized by substantial inter-patient variation in rate of progression and disease outcome: Although up to 25% of the general population are at risk of progressive disease, only a minority experience associated liver-related morbidity. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is considered a complex disease trait that occurs when environmental exposures act upon a susceptible polygenic background composed of multiple independent modifiers. Recent advances include the identification of PNPLA3 as a modifier of disease outcome across the full spectrum of NAFLD from steatosis to advanced fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma; and the discovery of TM6SF2 as a potential “master regulator” of metabolic syndrome outcome, determining not only risk of advanced liver disease, but also cardiovascular disease outcomes. In this article, the authors will review the field, discussing in detail the current status of research into these important genetic modifiers of NAFLD progression.

Systematic review of bariatric surgery liver biopsies clarifies the natural history of liver disease Systematic review of bariatric surgery liver biopsies clarifies the natural history of liver disease

Date added: 08/03/2018
Date modified: 08/03/2018
Filesize: 256 Bytes
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"Systematic review of bariatric surgery liver biopsies clarifies the natural history of liver disease in patients with severe obesity"

Objective:
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a frequent complication of morbid obesity, but its severity varies greatly and thus there is a strong need to better define its natural history in these patients.

Design:
Liver biopsies were systematically performed in 798 consecutive patients with severe obesity undergoing bariatric surgery. Histology was compared with clinical, biological, anthropometrical and body composition characteristics.

Results:
Patients with presumably normal liver (n=179, 22%) were significantly younger at bariatric surgery than patients with NAFLD (37.0 vs 44.4 years, p<0.0001). However, both groups showed quite similar obesity duration, since patients with presumably normal liver reported the onset of obesity at a significantly younger age than those with NAFLD (14.8 vs 20.0 year, p<0.0001). The trunk/limb fat mass ratio increased according to liver disease severity (presumably normal liver: 1.00, steatosis: 1.21, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH): 1.34, p<0.0001), although the total body fat mass decreased ( presumably normal liver: 50%, steatosis: 49.1%, NASH: 47.4%, p<0.0001). The volume of subcutaneous adipocytes increased according to severity of liver disease but only in female patients (presumably normal liver: 8543 picolitres, steatosis: 9156 picolitres, NASH: 9996 picolitres).

Conclusions:
These results suggest that young adults are more prone to store fat in subcutaneous tissue and reach the threshold of bariatric surgery indication before their liver is damaged. A shift of fat storage from subcutaneous to visceral adipose tissue compartment is associated with liver damages. Liver might also be targeted by subcutaneous hypertrophic adipocytes in females since hypertrophic adipocytes are more exposed to lipolysis and to the production of inflammatory mediators.

Serum lipidomics reveals early differential effects of gastric bypass compared to banding on... Serum lipidomics reveals early differential effects of gastric bypass compared to banding on...

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Date added: 02/03/2018
Date modified: 02/03/2018
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"Serum lipidomics reveals early differential effects of gastric bypass compared to banding on phospholipids and sphingolipids independent of differences in weight loss"

Background/Objectives:
Circulating phospholipids and sphingolipids are implicated in obesity-related comorbidities such as insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. How bariatric surgery affects these important lipid markers is poorly understood. We sought to determine whether Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), which is associated with greater metabolic improvement, differentially affects the phosphosphingolipidome compared with adjustable gastric banding (AGB).

Subjects/Methods:
Fasting sera were available from 59 obese women (body mass index range 37–51 kg m−2; n=37 RYGB and 22 AGB) before surgery, then at 1 (21 RYGB, 12 AGB) and 3 months follow-up (19 RYGB, 12 AGB). HPLC-MS/MS was used to quantify 131 lipids from nine structural classes. DXA measurements and laboratory parameters were also obtained. The associations between lipids and clinical measurements were studied with P-values adjusted for the false discovery rate (FDR).

Results:
Both surgical procedures rapidly induced weight loss and improved clinical profiles, with RYGB producing better improvements in fat mass, and serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and orosomucoid (FDR <10%). Ninety-three (of 131) lipids were altered by surgery—the majority decreasing—with 29 lipids differentially affected by RYGB during the study period. The differential effect of the surgeries remained statistically significant for 20 of these lipids after adjusting for differences in weight loss between surgery types. The RYGB signature consisted of phosphatidylcholine species not exceeding 36 carbons, and ceramides and sphingomyelins containing C22 to C25 fatty acids. RYGB also led to a sustained increase in unsaturated ceramide and sphingomyelin species. The RYGB-specific lipid changes were associated with decreases in body weight, total and LDL-C, orosomucoid and increased HOMA-S (FDR <10%).

Conclusions:
Concomitant with greater metabolic improvement, RYGB induced early and sustained changes in phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins and ceramides that were independent of greater weight loss. These data suggest that RYGB may specifically alter sphingolipid metabolism, which, in part, could explain the better metabolic outcomes of this surgical procedure.

Serum endotrophin identifies optimal responders to PPARγ agonists in type 2 diabetes Serum endotrophin identifies optimal responders to PPARγ agonists in type 2 diabetes

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Date added: 03/05/2017
Date modified: 03/05/2017
Filesize: 491.44 kB
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Aims/hypothesis

The treatment of type 2 diabetes with full peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists improves insulin sensitivity, but is associated with weight gain, heart failure, peripheral oedema and bone loss. Endotrophin, the C-terminal fragment of the α3 chain of procollagen type VI (also called Pro-C6), is involved in both adipose tissue matrix remodelling and metabolic control. We established a serum assay for endotrophin to assess if this novel adipokine could identify type 2 diabetic patients who respond optimally to PPARγ agonists, improving the risk-to-benefit ratio.

Methods

The BALLET trial (NCT00515632) compared the glucose-lowering effects and safety of the partial PPARγ agonist balaglitazone with those of pioglitazone in individuals with type 2 diabetes on stable insulin therapy. The per protocol population (n = 297) was stratified into tertiles based on baseline endotrophin levels. Participants were followed-up after 26 weeks, after which correlational analysis was carried out between endotrophin levels and measures of glucose control. This is a secondary post hoc analysis.

Results

Endotrophin was significantly associated with therapeutic response to balaglitazone and pioglitazone. At week 26, only individuals in the upper two tertiles showed significant reductions in HbA1c and fasting serum glucose compared with baseline. The OR for a 1% and a 0.5% reduction in HbA1c for individuals in the upper two tertiles were 3.83 (95% CI 1.62, 9.04) p < 0.01, and 3.85 (95% CI 1.94, 7.61) p < 0.001, respectively. Endotrophin levels correlated with adipose tissue mass, insulin resistance and fatty liver index. Notably, PPARγ-associated adverse effects, such as moderate-to-severe lower extremity oedema, only occurred in the lower tertile.

Conclusions/interpretation

Elevated endotrophin serum levels predict response to two insulin sensitisers and reduce the risk of associated adverse effects, thereby, identifying patients with type 2 diabetes who may profit from PPARγ agonist treatment.

Role of Adipose Tissue Insulin Resistance in the Natural History of T2DM: Results From the San... Role of Adipose Tissue Insulin Resistance in the Natural History of T2DM: Results From the San...

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Date added: 03/10/2018
Date modified: 03/10/2018
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"Role of Adipose Tissue Insulin Resistance in the Natural History of T2DM: Results From the San Antonio Metabolism Study"

In the transition from normal glucose tolerance (NGT) to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the role of b-cell dysfunction and peripheral insulin resistance (IR) is well established. However, the impact of dysfunctional adipose tissue has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of resistance to the antilipolytic effect of insulin (adipose tissue IR [Adipo-IR]) in a large group of subjects with NGT, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and T2DM.

Predictors of Liver Fat and Stiffness in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) – an 11-Year... Predictors of Liver Fat and Stiffness in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) – an 11-Year...

Date added: 08/07/2018
Date modified: 08/07/2018
Filesize: 1.38 MB
Downloads: 10

"Predictors of Liver Fat and Stiffness in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) – an 11-Year Prospective Study"

Liver fat can be non-invasively measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and fibrosis estimated as stiffness using transient elastography (FibroScan). There are no longitudinal data on changes in liver fat in Europids or on predictors of liver stiffness using these methods. We determined liver fat (1H-MRS) and clinical characteristics including features of insulin resistance at baseline and after a median follow-up period of 11.3 (range 7.3–13.4) years in 97 Finnish subjects. Liver stiffness was measured at 11.3 years. Liver fat content decreased by 5% (p < 0.05) over time. Values at baseline and 11.3 years were closely interrelated (r = 0.81, p < 0.001). Baseline liver fat (OR 1.32; 95%CI: 1.15–1.50) and change in BMI (OR 1.67; 95%CI: 1.24–2.25) were independent predictors of liver fat at 11.3 years (AUROC 0.90; 95%CI: 0.83–0.96). Baseline liver fat (AUROC 0.84; 95%CI: 0.76–0.92) predicted liver fat at 11.3 years more accurately than routinely available parameters (AUROC 0.76; 95%CI: 0.65–0.86, p = 0.02). At 11.3 years, 29% of the subjects had increased liver stiffness. Baseline liver fat (OR 2.17; 95%CI: 1.05–4.46) was an independent predictor of increased liver stiffness. These data show that liver fat is more important than the associated metabolic abnormalities as the predictor of future liver fat and fibrosis.

PNPLA3 and obesity: a synergistic relationship in NAFLD PNPLA3 and obesity: a synergistic relationship in NAFLD

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Date added: 05/27/2018
Date modified: 05/27/2018
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NAFLD, the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, is a multifactorial condition — environmental factors influence an inherited genetic risk. Stender et al. now describe the additive effect of obesity and NAFLD-associated genetic polymorphisms on steatosis, elevated serum alanine aminotransferase levels and cirrhosis, remarkably illustrating the principle of gene–environment interactions.

Refers to Stender, S. et al. Adiposity amplifies the genetic risk of fatty liver disease conferred by multiple loci. Nat. Genet. 49, 842–847 (2017)