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Assessment of Liver Fibrosis Progression and Regression by a Serological Collagen Turnover Profile Assessment of Liver Fibrosis Progression and Regression by a Serological Collagen Turnover Profile

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Date added: 07/29/2019
Date modified: 07/29/2019
Filesize: 256 Bytes
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There is a need for noninvasive biomarkers that can identify patients with progressive liver fibrosis and monitor response to antifibrotic therapy. An equally important need is identification of patients with spontaneous fibrosis regression, since they may not need treatment nor be included in clinical studies with fibrosis as end point. Circulating biomarkers, originating from defined fragments of the scar tissue itself, may serve as valuable tools for this aspect of precision medicine. We investigated a panel of serological collagen formation and degradation markers to identify patients likely to regress or progress in absence of a therapeutic intervention. Plasma samples from patients with moderate-stage hepatitis C receiving placebo treatment in a phase II trial of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonist farglitazar were included. The patients had matched liver biopsies at baseline and 52 wk of follow-up. Serological biomarkers of collagen formation (PRO-C3, PRO-C4, PRO-C5) and collagen degradation (C3M, C4M, and C6M) were analyzed. Logistic regression analysis including PRO-C3 and C6M identified subjects with progressive liver fibrosis with an AUROC of 0.91 (P < 0.0001) and positive and negative predictive values (PPV/NPV) of 75.0%/88.6%. Low levels of PRO-C5 predicted a spontaneous regression phenotype, with an odds ratio of 33.8 times higher compared with patients with high levels (P < 0.0025) with an AUROC of 0.78 (P < 0.0001) and PPV/NPV of 60.0%/95.7%. Two collagen fragments (PRO-C3 and C6M) identified liver fibrosis progressors, and one collagen fragment (PRO-C5) identified liver fibrosis regressors. These biomarkers may improve patient stratification and monitor treatment efficacy in studies with fibrosis as clinical end point.

In this study we report two biomarkers of collagen fragments (PRO-C3 and C6M) that are able to identify liver fibrosis progressors while one biomarker (PRO-C5) identified liver fibrosis regressors. In particular, we present three noninvasive biomarkers that can be used to identify patients with progressive liver fibrosis, monitor response to antifibrotic therapy, and also identify the spontaneous liver fibrosis regression phenotype.

A spotlight on pathogenesis, interactions and novel therapeutic options in NAFLD A spotlight on pathogenesis, interactions and novel therapeutic options in NAFLD

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Date added: 07/29/2019
Date modified: 07/29/2019
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In 2018, there have been substantial advances in our understanding of the risk factors for advanced liver disease in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, including genetic variants and the gut microbiota. Promising results have also arisen from drugs targeting metabolic pathways involved in the progression of liver damage.

Phosphatidylglycerols are induced by gut dysbiosis and inflammation, and favorably modulate... Phosphatidylglycerols are induced by gut dysbiosis and inflammation, and favorably modulate...

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Date added: 08/10/2019
Date modified: 08/10/2019
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"Phosphatidylglycerols are induced by gut dysbiosis and inflammation, and favorably modulate adipose tissue remodeling in obesity"

Lipidomic techniques can improve our understanding of complex lipid interactions that regulate metabolic diseases. Here, a serum phospholipidomics analysis identified associations between phosphatidylglycerols (PGs) and gut microbiota dysbiosis. Compared with the other phospholipids, serum PGs were the most elevated in patients with low microbiota gene richness, which were normalized after a dietary intervention that restored gut microbial diversity. Serum PG levels were positively correlated with metagenomic functional capacities for bacterial LPS synthesis and host markers of low-grade inflammation; transcriptome databases identified PG synthase, the first committed enzyme in PG synthesis, as a potential mediator. Experiments in mice and cultured human-derived macrophages demonstrated that LPS induces PG release. Acute PG treatment in mice altered adipose tissue gene expression toward remodeling and inhibited ex vivo lipolysis in adipose tissue, suggesting that PGs favor lipid storage. Indeed, several PG species were associated with the severity of obesity in mice and humans. Finally, despite enrichment in PGs in bacterial membranes, experiments employing gnotobiotic mice colonized with recombinant PG overproducing Lactococcus lactis showed limited direct contribution of microbial PGs to the host. In summary, PGs are inflammation-responsive lipids indirectly regulated by the gut microbiota via endotoxins and regulate adipose tissue homeostasis in obesity.

Fibrosis and alcohol-related liver disease Fibrosis and alcohol-related liver disease

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Date added: 08/10/2019
Date modified: 08/10/2019
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Histological fibrosis stage is one of the most important prognostic factors in compensated and decompensated alcohol-related liver disease (ALD). Morphological assessment of fibrosis is useful for patient stratification, enabling individualised management, and for evaluation of treatment effects in clinical studies. In contrast to most chronic liver diseases where fibrosis is portal-based, fatty liver disease (FLD) of alcoholic or non-alcoholic aetiology (NAFLD) is associated with a centrilobular pattern of injury which leads to perivenular fibrosis and/or pericellular fibrosis. Progression of FLD drives expansive pericellular fibrosis, linking vascular structures and paving the way for the development of cirrhosis. At the cirrhotic stage, ongoing tissue damage leads to increasing fibrosis severity due to parenchymal loss and proliferation of fibrous scars. Histologic fibrosis staging systems have been devised, based on topography and the extent of fibrosis, for most chronic liver diseases. The utility of histological staging is reflected in different risks associated with individual fibrosis stages which cannot be reliably distinguished by non-invasive fibrosis assessment. In contrast to NAFLD, ALD-specific staging systems that enable the standardised prognostication required for clinical management and trials are lacking. Although morphological similarities between NAFLD and ALD exist, differences in clinical and histological features may substantially limit the utility of established NAFLD-specific staging systems for prognostication in ALD. This review summarises morphological features of fibrosis in ALD and compares them to other chronic liver diseases, particularly NAFLD. ALD-related fibrosis is examined in the context of pathogenetic mechanisms of fibrosis progression, regression and clinical settings that need to be considered in future prognostically relevant ALD staging approaches.

 P465L pparγ mutation confers partial resistance to the hypolipidemic action of fibrates P465L pparγ mutation confers partial resistance to the hypolipidemic action of fibrates

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Date added: 06/30/2019
Date modified: 06/30/2019
Filesize: 1.63 MB
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Aims
Familial partial lipodystrophic syndrome 3 (FPLD3) is associated with mutations in the transcription factor PPARγ. One of these mutations, the P467L, confers a dominant negative effect. We and others have previously investigated the pathophysiology associated with this mutation using a humanized mouse model that recapitulates most of the clinical symptoms observed in patients who have been phenotyped under different experimental conditions. One of the key clinical manifestations observed, both in humans and mouse models, is the ectopic accumulation of fat in the liver. With this study we aim to dissect the molecular mechanisms that contribute to the excessive accumulation of lipids in the liver and characterize the negative effect of this PPARγ mutation on the activity of PPARα in vivo when activated by fibrates.

Material and Methods
P465L‐PPAR mutant and wild‐type mice were divided into 8 experimental groups, 4 different conditions per genotype. Briefly, mice were fed a chow diet or a high‐fat diet (HFD 45% Kcal from fat) for a period of 28 days and treated with WY14643 or vehicle for five days before culling. At the end of the experiment, tissues and plasma were collected. We performed extensive gene expression, fatty acid composition and histological analysis in the livers. The serum collected was used to measure several metabolites and to perform basic lipoprotein profile.

Results
P465L mice showed increased levels of insulin and free fatty acids (FFA) as well as increased liver steatosis. They also exhibit decreased levels of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) when fed an HFD. We also provide evidence of impaired expression of a number of well‐established PPARα target genes in the P465L mutant livers.

Conclusion
Our data demonstrate that P465L confers partial resistance to the hypolipidemic action of fibrates. These results show that the fatty liver phenotype observed in P465L mutant mice is not only the consequence of dysfunctional adipose tissue, but also involves defective liver metabolism. All in all, the deleterious effects of P465L‐PPARγ mutation may be magnified by their collateral negative effect on PPARα function.